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What Everyone Ought to Know About Australian Media Ownership

In a world becoming increasing saturated with media, have you ever taken the time to consider who owns and is producing all this content? If not, you probably should…

Australia’s level of media ownership concentration is already one of the highest in the world. – Shadow minister for communications, Michelle Rowland, press release, November 8, 2016.

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Big media companies are monopolising, growing larger and larger. Of course, this means that their reach, influence and power is also growing.

There are seemingly plenty of instances where owners of newspapers/ tv programs are controlling and influencing the content that is produced.

For example, Rupert Murdoch (who owns 70% of all Australian Newspapers) does not believe in climate change so his newspaper ‘The Australian’ never published articles about it, other than stories saying it wasn’t real.

His personal politic views also effect his newspapers also influences the politics ‘The Australian’ and ‘The Daily Telegraph’ newspaper constantly vilifying labour.

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It’s a different situation for the owners of media platforms (like Facebook, Instagram, YouTube etc.) because the users are able to produce and share their own content.

What most people don’t know, is that whilst they might technically retain the ownership of their uploaded content, social media platforms are largely permitted to do whatever they like with content uploaded onto their sites, including using, sharing and selling their users’ work.

“In Australia, original material such as text, photos, images, video, and audio are protected under the Copyright Act 1968 (Cth)…Generally, the author or creator of a work is the copyright owner, with the exclusive rights to control the reproduction or display of the work, and the exclusive right to profit from the work.” – McCabe Curwood – Amelia Cooper and Elisa Blakers

Unlike traditional media companies where one person is controlling the information you receive, in the case of social media platforms, it is one person (or a small group of people) controlling the information you give them.

This is seen in the “Facebook & Cambridge Analytica Scandal” a major political scandal in early 2018 when it was revealed that

Cambridge Analytica had harvested the personal data of millions of people’s Facebook profiles without their consent and used it for political purposes.

This leads to the question, should we trust them?

Does it matter who owns the media?

The short answer, yes.

The way we imagine the world to be is often the way the world is represented in the media.

So, it is extremely important to receive multiple and varying perspectives, so that you are prompted to question and evaluate your understanding of the world, your beliefs and your ideology.

The first step towards controlling the values and future direction of society is through successfully controlling the media. So, it is important to recognise that fewer and fewer people are dictating how we see the world.

“Democracy is at stake, but the people in power aren’t listening because they are very happy with the way they can easily dominate the news cycle.” (Donovan, 2011)

As such, we must always consider, who is producing what content and why?…

After all almost everyone has a motive…

Remember to comment and let me know what you think!



The Secrets of Semiotics


AKA the ‘science of signs.’

But what does this really mean?

According to this article by Sign Salad,

“Semiotics is an investigation into how meaning is created and how meaning is communicated. Its origins lie in the academic study of how signs and symbols (visual and linguistic) create meaning. It is a way of seeing the world, and of understanding how the landscape and culture in which we live has a massive impact on all of us unconsciously.”

Semiotics is not just one single theory. There are actually several semiotic theories, formulated by multiple people including de Saussure, Peirce, Morris, HjelmslevJakobson, Barthes, Greimas, and Eco.

For deSaussure and Peirce, the signifier and signified are inseparable, one cannot exist without the other, and one always implicates the other.

In his version the signifier and signified are arbitrarily linked and inseparable. They create meaning simultaneously, together.

This means that every sign has a denotation (signifier) and connotation (signified).

Using Semiotics:

For example:

When I looked at this image my understanding was…

Denotation = two (well dressed) young boys; one smiling, one frowning.

Connotation = one boy is happy because he got enough sleep, one boy is grumpy because he is tired.

I believe my understanding reflects the creators preferred interpretation of the image.

However, this interpretation directly conflicts with Tumblr user professorgo’s opinion which is that the smiling boy got less sleep.

As such, it is important to remember that almost all images can be interpreted in more than one way…

Example #2

How about we look at this (adorable) Volkswagen Advertisement?

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The signifiers include: Three see through, water filled, plastic bags containing goldfish in a line. A small (very cute) hedgehog lined up between two of the goldfish. A simple white background. The text
“Precision parking. Parking assist by Volkswagen” and further right of the text there is the Volkswagen logo.

The signified: Because the animals are lined up so close together it is implied that the fish are vulnerable to the sharp quills of the hedgehog which is symbolic of the fear of damaging a car when parallel parking. As such, this Ad has used semiotics to communicate an idea to their audience in an effective and creative way.

So next time you look at an image, see if you can work out what’s literally there and how that triggers different ideas…

I’d love to hear what you think, leave a comment below!


R. Nordquist, (2018), “Definition and Examples of Semiotics”. Available at:[Accessed at 27/03/19]

L. Herbert, (2019), “Elements of Semiotics”. Available at: [Accessed: 27/03/19]

Attempting Glitch Art

Welcome, today I’m going to take my first step into the big, wide world of internet trends and a e s t h e t i c s …

Source: Giphy Creator: Richard Winters

First of all, what is glitch art?

“Glitch art is the practice of using digital errors for aesthetic purposes.”

So what does that really mean?

“Glitch art means intentionally corrupting digital data. It creates unusual visual effects.”

In recent decades there has been a big shift within media audiences from being passive consumers to becoming active participants. This means that in this day and age, anyone can be both a consumer and a producer of content.

Digitisation has dissolved the boundary between production and conception.

With virtually no cost, or risk, individuals are able produce content without a filter. Consequently, this lack of filter has lead to the emergence of new trends such as glitch art and vaporwave.

(Interested? You can read more about the history of glitch art here.)

Source: Giphy Creator: Alina Hager

According to Terrence Morash (in this article) glitch art is, “a paradoxical balance of being both futuristic and retro, reflecting an unsettling near-future while referencing the low-fi technology of the past.”

“Glitch appeals to designers for its dystopian yet futuristic look and feel. There’s a controlled imperfection to it and it’s a reminder of the technical elements of design,”

Morash explains that, “No other trend has surfaced quite as much as glitch. It is ubiquitous, and we have seen it emerge in fashion, branding, TV and film, as well as packaging and out-of-home campaigns. Although searches for the term glitch had only increased by 32 percent from the previous year, our internal creative and trends review team noted its potential to climb further in the design ranks this year.

I don’t believe we have reached peak glitch yet.”

As such, if the trend of glitch art and glitch a e s t h e t i c s is only growing I thought I’d have a crack at it. So, here we have my very first attempt at this using some of my photos from my latest overseas adventure in France..

Featuring my friend Lucia

Not great. Believe me, I know. #fefo

Anyway, here are some attempts at glitch art gifs, because the only way you can improve is to practice! …Right?

Thanks for reading!

I’d love to hear what you think, comment below your opinion on the glitch art trend or leave me some advice!

Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Audiences

What is an audience? According to CTI Reviews (2019), an audience is a group of people who participate in a show or encounter a work of art, literature, theatre, music, video games, or academics in any medium. While some mediums/ events invite overt audience participation, others only allow clapping, criticism and reception.

In a world where media is being consumed more frequently and at a greater level, the ideas surrounding what an audience is are constantly developing.

So, what does it mean to be a part of an audience? To be a part of an audience in the modern world means to be a part of a group that experiences/ consumes the same thing, regardless of the time and place.

The idea of what an audience is, is constantly changing as new medias are developed and introduced.

“Even though we might reliably assume that a lot of people are reading the same magazines, listening to the same radio stations and accessing the same websites, it is unlikely that they will be doing so in the same place or necessarily at the same time.” – Susan .E Turnball “Imagining the Audience”

What do we do when we are a part of an audience? Well this depends on the type of audience, sometimes we observe, listen and take in the content. Whilst other times we actively engage with the content, whether that be by liking, sharing, or commenting our own ideas.

Check out this article to find out more…

My Audience Experience:

In 2017, I was lucky enough to be able to go to Hawaii with my family. We stayed on the island Oahu and spent the time there exploring the culture and beautiful landscape. One day from that trip I will never forget is when we went to The Polynesian Cultural Centre.

River Dance Ceremony Photo: Alina Hager

It was amazing! I would recommend visiting it if you ever get the chance.

While we were there we decided to get tickets for the night time show they produced called “Ha: the Breath of Life”.

The show was incredible it was so professional and entertaining and the story line was fantastic! It explored all the different Polynesian Island cultures and their histories through song and dance, showing me a new world that I previously knew nothing about.

Hula Performance Photo: Alina Hager

Like any live theatre experience, there were some negatives such as the baby in the row behind me crying every now and then and it was a little hard to see sometimes because of where we were seated. But the positives definitely outweighed all this, there’s something very special about being apart of a physical theatre audience, you are sharing the experience, sharing emotions and there is almost a feeling of community when a part of an audience like this.

I took away so much knowledge from this performance, before visiting Hawaii I didn’t even know which islands made up the Polynesian islands, much less there history or culture. I was totally clueless!

So Mahalo (thank you) to the Polynesian Cultural Centre for providing me with this experience and to opening my eyes to so much beautiful and vibrant culture!

Be sure to let me know your best (or worst) audience experience in the comments below!

The Medium is the Message?

When I rocked up to my 9:30 Lecture last Monday morning, my brain sure was not ready to understand the concept “The Medium is the Message” coined by Marshall McLuhan in 1967. His ideas are abstract and quite complex but I’ll try my best to explain what I learnt.

First of all what is a medium?

A medium is an extension of ourselves/ anything that conveys information.

Therefore a lecture room is a medium as it conveys that you are going to sit down and learn by listening to a lecturer, it frames your behaviour and tells you what to expect.

As such, clothes can also be considered a medium as it conveys a message about you to others.

Of course, this concept applies to more than just clothes…

Marshall McLuhan believed that:

“The personal and social consequences of any medium- that is, of any extension of ourselves- result from the new scale that is produced into our affairs by each extension of ourselves…” -McLuhan, “Understanding Media”.

The way I interpreted it was –> how we consume information influences what we learn from it. 

I believe Dan Olsen explains McLuhan’s ideas quite well when he asks,

“What has had a greater impact on the way that we as a society interact with one another, all the content of every YouTube video ever made or the existence of YouTube itself?” -Dan Olson, “Minisode – The Medium is the Message.”

So on that note, thanks for reading!

Hit Follow so you can join me as I learn more about McLuhan’s concepts on Media & Communications and the online world of emergent media!

DA Project Pitch!

“Gentle Giants & Co. ”

All my life my family and I have owned dogs, in particular larger breeds, such as German Shepherd Dogs.

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In the last couple years I’ve begun to notice that a lot of people fear bigger dogs and there are a lot of misconceptions about certain breeds being considered dangerous.

To see if other people had noticed the same thing I conducted a poll on Instagram which resulted in 85% of people agreeing.

That’s where “Gentle Giants and Co.” comes in, I want to bring awareness to this issue.

I plan to do this by creating a Facebook page and blog sharing training tips and information about the importance of proper discipline posting weekly at a minimum.

As well as creating an Instagram account for my dog Zeus which I will link below. The aim of this will be to provide entertainment but also promote Gentle Giants & Co and it’s messages.

This is a project I’m really looking forward to working on and I can’t wait to see where it goes!

Follow Zeus:@zeusthefluffygsd

DA Ideas..

Hi guys, after driving myself crazy trying to come up with an idea for my DA in BCM112, I’ve finally come up with a couple options I would enjoy doing.

  1. Tourism Instagram- Featuring the South Coast of Australia.
  2. “Feelin’ Good” – A Website featuring things to make people feel ‘good’. Including fashion ideas, food ideas and encouraging good mental health and positivity.
  3. 5MinuteFeed: Quick and easy meals/ treats/ snacks you can make.
  4. Pet Instagram Account & Awareness for the issue of misconceptions regarding supposed ‘dangerous’ dog breeds.

I’l let you know what I decide!

Stay groovy…

About Me

Hi there!

My name is Alina (Ah-lee-na) and I am a nineteen year old, second year university student and over the next couple years I will be studying Communications & Media at the University of Wollongong (majoring in Advertising and Marketing and minoring in Digital & Social media).

As for a little background information, I grew up in a tiny town near Jervis Bay on the South Coast. Where I lived with my parents, brother and beloved German Shepherd Zeus. This year however, I finally made the move to Wollongong, where I now live in a big share-house with 5 of my friends.

In my free time I enjoy going to the beach, camping, travelling, reading, watching movies & TV shows, taking photos, singing along to feel good tunes and having a dance.

Other facts about me include:

  • I’m a serious sweet tooth and have a love/ hate (but mostly love) relationship with cheesecake.
  • I can’t stand horror movies. It’s not fun being scared.
  • I love fantasy books and would really like to try write one in the future.
  • I would literally watch Friends, Brooklyn 99 & Gilmore Girls episodes all day.
  • I’m undefeated at Mario Kart.

But most importantly, I love learning about and experiencing new things!

So I’m super excited to see where the next couple years take me. If you’re interested in my content please follow me on my social medias linked below!

Twitter –>

Instagram –>

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